Saturday, May 16, 2009

NASA Sanskrit Report

NASA Sanskrit Report NASA Sanskrit Report narayanalakshmi Sanskrit as a computer Language

38 comments:

發燙 said...

If you lend someone $20 and never see that person again, it was probably worth it.............................................

開心唷 said...

Unable to give you a heart. so have a reply to push up your post. ........................................

easy said...

More haste, less speed.........................................

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奕LonniePettus0908希 said...

用行動來支持你~~~不留言不行!........................................

哲云 said...

good~ keep sharing with us, please....I will waiting your up date everyday!! Have a nice day........................................

GeraldF_Rotter雅慧 said...

Nice Post~!!!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

志源 said...

TAHNKS FOR YOUR SHARING~~~VERY NICE ........................................

俊淑娟美 said...

看到好文章心情就很好 ^^ ........................................

NathanaelDrumm0113家明 said...

成功多屬於那些很快做出決定,卻又不輕易變更的人。而失敗也經常屬於那些很難做出決定,卻又經常變更的人.............................................

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佩璇 said...

生存乃是不斷地在內心與靈魂交戰;寫作是坐著審判自己。...........................................................................

峻君 said...

i trust everything will be fine. bless you!........................................

rodriguezp said...

好棒的地方 我一定要常來~~~^^~.........................

家瑋 said...

看看blog放鬆一下,工作累死了.................................................................

俊偉 said...

人因夢想而偉大,要堅持自己的理想哦......................................................................

陳淳 said...

知識可以傳授,智慧卻不行。每個人必須成為他自己。......................................................................

葉婷 said...

死亡是悲哀的,但活得不快樂更悲哀。.................................................................

郁雨郁雨 said...

閒來無聊逛逛blog~~跟您打聲招呼~~.................................................................

泓發 said...

向著星球長驅直進的人,反比踟躕在峽路上的人,更容易達到目的。............................................................

芸茂芸茂 said...

Hello~Nice meet you~~............................................................

JasonBirk佳琪 said...

希望我的支持可以帶給你快樂--加油...................................................

竹青 said...

People throw stones only at trees with fruit on them.............................................................

家愛家愛 said...

謝謝格主的分享..................................................................

賢林賢林 said...

我們必須先有哭泣,才有歡笑;也必須先感到人生的悲哀,然後才感到人生的快樂。............................................................

俊成俊成 said...

當我微笑時,世界和我一起微笑;當我快樂時,世界和我一起活躍。..................................................

王美妹 said...

凡事三思而行,跑得太快是會滑倒的。..................................................

林彥以林彥以 said...

與人相處不妨多用眼睛說話,多用嘴巴思考. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

徐俊梁守筠賢 said...

認同您堅持和認真的態度,加油!支持你............................................................

家唐銘 said...

喜歡自己的另一層意義是「接納自己」。..................................................

蔡亭和蔡蔡蔡蔡亭和蔡蔡蔡 said...

良言一句三冬暖,惡語傷人六月寒。......................................................................

張黃柏亞武茜 said...

在莫非定律中有項笨蛋定律:「一個組織中的笨蛋,恆大於等於三分之二。」............................................................

灏群 said...

累死了…來去看看文章轉換心情~............................................................

黃智樺黃智樺 said...

拒絕冒險和成長的人,終將被生命的潮流陶汰。..................................................

8468 said...

缺少智慧,就是缺少一切..................................................

翊翊翊翊張瑜翊翊翊 said...

期待更新,要保持最佳狀況呦..................................................................

幸平平平平杰 said...

你的部落格感覺很棒,nice job!............................................................

欣侑欣侑欣侑欣侑 said...

人生中最好的禮物就是屬於自己的一部份............................................................

 

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. See Help:IPA for a pronunciation key.

Classical Sanskrit distinguishes about 36 phonemes. There is, however, some allophony and the writing systems used for Sanskrit generally indicate this, thus distinguishing 48 sounds.

The sounds are traditionally listed in the order vowels (Ach), diphthongs (Hal), anusvara and visarga, plosives (Sparśa) and nasals (starting in the back of the mouth and moving forward), and finally the liquids and fricatives, written in IAST as follows (see the tables below for details):

a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ ; e ai o au
ṃ ḥ
k kh g gh ṅ; c ch j jh ñ; ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ; t th d dh n; p ph b bh m
y r l v; ś ṣ s h

An alternate traditional ordering is that of the Shiva Sutra of Pāṇini.

[edit] Vowels

See also: R-colored vowel#Vocalic R in Sanskrit

The vowels of Classical Sanskrit with their word-initial Devanagari symbol, diacritical mark with the consonant प् (/p/), pronunciation (of the vowel alone and of /p/+vowel) in IPA, equivalent in IAST and ITRANS and (approximate) equivalents in English are listed below:

Letter प् Pronunciation Pronunciation with /p/ IAST equiv. ITRANS equiv. English equivalent (GA unless stated otherwise)
/ɐ/ or /ə/ /pɐ/ or /pə/ a a short near-open central vowel or schwa: u in bunny or a in about
पा /aː/ /paː/ ā A long open back unrounded vowel: a in father (RP
पि /i/ /pi/ i i short close front unrounded vowel: e in england
पी /iː/ /piː/ ī I long close front unrounded vowel: ee in feet
पु /u/ /pu/ u u short close back rounded vowel: oo in foot
पू /uː/ /puː/ ū U long close back rounded vowel: oo in cool
पृ /ɻ/ /pɻ/ R short retroflex approximant: r in burl
पॄ /ɻː/ /pɻː/ RR long retroflex approximant r in burl
पॢ /ɭ/ /pɭ/ LR short retroflex lateral approximant (no English equivalent)
पॣ /ɭː/ /pɭː/ LRR long retroflex lateral approximant
पे /eː/ /peː/ e e long close-mid front unrounded vowel: a in bane (some speakers)
पै /əi/ /pəi/ ai ai a long diphthong: i in ice, i in kite (Canadian English)
पो /oː/ /poː/ o o long close-mid back rounded vowel: o in bone (some speakers)
पौ /əu/ /pəu/ au au a long diphthong: Similar to the ou in house (Canadian English)

The long vowels are pronounced twice as long as their short counterparts. Also, there exists a third, extra-long length for most vowels, called pluti, which is used in various cases, but particularly in the vocative. The pluti is not accepted by all grammarians.

The vowels /e/ and /o/ continue as allophonic variants of Proto-Indo-Iranian /ai/, /au/ and are categorized as diphthongs by Sanskrit grammarians even though they are realized phonetically as simple long vowels. (See above).

Additional points:

[edit] Consonants

IAST and Devanagari notations are given, with approximate IPA values in square brackets.

Labial
Ōshtya
Labiodental
Dantōshtya
Dental
Dantya
Retroflex
Mūrdhanya
Palatal
Tālavya
Velar
Kanthya
Glottal
Stop
Sparśa
Unaspirated
Alpaprāna
p [p] b [b] t [t̪] d [d̪] [ʈ] [ɖ] c [c͡ç] j [ɟ͡ʝ] k [k] g [g]
Aspirated
Mahāprāna
ph [pʰ] bh [bʱ] th [t̪ʰ] dh [d̪ʱ] ṭh [ʈʰ] ḍh [ɖʱ] ch [c͡çʰ] jh [ɟ͡ʝʱ] kh [kʰ] gh [gʱ]
Nasal
Anunāsika
m [m] n [n̪] [ɳ] ñ [ɲ] [ŋ]
Semivowel
Antastha
v [ʋ] y [j]
Liquid
Drava
l [l] r [r]
Fricative
Ūshman
s [s̪] [ʂ] ś [ɕ] [h] h [ɦ]

The table below shows the traditional listing of the Sanskrit consonants with the (nearest) equivalents in English (as pronounced in General American and Received Pronunciation) and Spanish. Each consonant shown below is deemed to be followed by the neutral vowel schwa (/ə/), and is named in the table as such.

Plosives – Sprshta
Unaspirated
Voiceless
Alpaprāna Śvāsa
Aspirated
Voiceless
Mahāprāna Śvāsa
Unaspirated
Voiced
Alpaprāna Nāda
Aspirated
Voiced
Mahāprāna Nāda
Nasal
Anunāsika Nāda
Velar
Kantya

/kə/; English: skip

/kʰə/; English: cat

/gə/; English: game

/gʱə/; somewhat similar to English: doghouse

/ŋə/; English: ring
Palatal
Tālavya

/cə/; English: exchange

/cʰə/; English: church

/ɟə/; ≈English: jam

/ɟʱə/; somewhat similar to English: hedgehog

/ɲə/; English: bench
Retroflex
Mūrdhanya

/ʈə/; No English equivalent

/ʈʰə/; No English equivalent

/ɖə/; No English equivalent

/ɖʱə/; No English equivalent

/ɳə/; No English equivalent
Apico-Dental
Dantya

/t̪ə/; Spanish: tomate

/t̪ʰə/; Aspirated /t̪/

/d̪ə/; Spanish: donde

/d̪ʱə/; Aspirated /d̪/

/n̪ə/; English: name
Labial
Ōshtya

/pə/; English: spin

/pʰə/; English: pit

/bə/; English: bone

/bʱə/; somewhat similar to English: clubhouse

/mə/; English: mine
Non-Plosives/Sonorants
Palatal
Tālavya
Retroflex
Mūrdhanya
Dental
Dantya
Labial/
Glottal
Ōshtya
Approximant
Antastha

/jə/; English: you

/rə/; English: trip (Scottish English)

/l̪ə/; English: love
व (labio-dental)
/ʋə/; English: vase
Sibilant/
Fricative
Ūshman

/ɕə/; English: ship

/ʂə/; Retroflex form of /ʃ/

/s̪ə/; English: same
(glottal)
/ɦə/; English behind